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Friday, May 30, 2008

More Free Physics Videos

I am getting my physics degree in 25 days so I am excited to bring another collection of free physics videos and full physics video courses!

This time I found a lot of modern physics videos for general public: talks on string theory, universe and particle supercolliders. I also found videos on cosmology, modern physics, particle physics, nanophysics, more string theory and various physics demonstrations.


Beauty and Truth in Physics by Murray Gell-Mann


Description:
Armed with a sense of humor and laypeople's terms, Nobel winner Murray Gell-Mann drops some knowledge on us about particle physics, asking questions like, Are elegant equations more likely to be right than inelegant ones?

About Murray Gell-Mann:
Murray Gell-Mann brings visibility to a crucial aspect of our existence that we can't actually see: elemental particles. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics for introducing quarks, one of two fundamental ingredients for all matter in the universe.



The Universe on a String by Brian Greene


Description:
Physicist Brian Greene explains superstring theory, the idea that minscule strands of energy vibrating in 11 dimensions create every particle and force in the universe.

About Brian Greene:
Brian Greene is perhaps the best-known proponent of superstring theory, the idea that minuscule strands of energy vibrating in 11 dimensions create every particle and force in the universe.



What is Our Place in the Cosmos? (David Deutsch)


Description:
Legendary scientist David Deutsch puts theoretical physics on the back burner to discuss a more urgent matter: the survival of our species. The first step toward solving global warming, he says, is to admit that we have a problem.

About David Deutsch:
More than any other thinker, David Deutsch will force you to reconsider your place in the world. This legendary Oxford physicist is the leading proponent of the multiverse (or "many worlds") interpretation of quantum theory -- the astounding idea that our universe is constantly spawning countless numbers of parallel worlds.



Asking Big Questions About the Universe (Stephen Hawking)


Description:
Professor Stephen Hawking asks some Big Questions about our universe -- How did the universe begin? How did life begin? Are we alone? -- and discusses how we might go about answering them.

About Stephen Hawking:
Stephen Hawking is perhaps the world's most famous living physicist. A specialist in cosmology and quantum gravity and a devotee of black holes, his work has probed the origins of the cosmos, the nature of time and the universe's ultimate fate -- earning him accolades including induction into the Order of the British Empire. To the public, he's best known as an author of bestsellers such as The Universe in a Nutshell and A Brief History of Time, which have brought an appreciation of theoretical physics to millions.



An Inside Tour of the World's Biggest Supercollider


Description:
"Rock-star physicist" Brian Cox talks about his work on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Discussing the biggest of big science in an engaging, accessible way, Cox brings us along on a tour of the massive project.

About Brian Cox:
Physicist Brian Cox has two jobs: working with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and explaining big science to the general public. He's become a vital voice in the UK media for explaining physics to the public. With his rockstar hair and accessible manner, he's the go-to physicist for explaining heady concepts on British TV and radio.



CERN's 27km Big Bang Machine


By Brian Cox, University of Manchester

Description:
A lecture about the way we are trying to understand building blocks of the Universe. Brian tells about the Large Hadron Collider and of the Atlas Experiment at CERN.



Lectures from African Summer Theory Institute 2004


This seminar includes lectures on topics:
Astronomy, Astrophysics, Cosmology, Chameleon Cosmology, The Cosmological Constant, Black Holes, Distance Duality, Inflation, Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Particle Physics, Neutrinos, Group Theory, Symmetry, Strings, Branes, Supersmmetry, The Holographic Principle, de Sitter Space, Solitons, Dark Energy, Collider Physics, Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions, The Early Universe, and others.



Exploration at the Limits of Space & Time (NASA's "Beyond Einstein" Program)


Description:
Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity predicted results that were so incredible that even he did not accept them: space is expanding from a Big Bang, space itself contains an energy that is pulling the Universe apart from within, and deep chasms of gravity called black holes actually exist. Astonishingly, all of these wild ideas are now known to be true. But now we need to build on Einstein's work to take the next step -- to study the underlying physics of the very phenomena that came out of his theories. NASA's Beyond Einstein program consists of a series of space missions, large and small, that push Einstein's theories to their limits, using increasingly more sensitive probes. The two flagship missions now in development, Constellation-X and LISA, will explore extremes of space, measuring X-rays and gravitational waves. The smaller missions, the Einstein probes, will target specific science questions such as "What is Dark Energy?" and "What powered the Big Bang?"


Neutrinos: Discovering a New Physics World


Lecture description:
The discovery of neutrino mass and mixing is one of the major discoveries in particle physics in the recent years. Non-zero neutrino masses and mixing are considered as the first direct evidence of new physics beyond the Standard model. Phenomenological consequences of this discovery as well as possible implications for fundamental theory will be discussed. Future programs of research and possible developments of the neutrino technologies will be outlined.


Laser Manipulation of Atoms and Spins


Description:
Two of the most important themes of modern magnetism are the making of magnetic structures and the switching of magnetization on ultra fast time scale. With the help of the interaction between photons and electrical states in atoms we can achieve both. Nanofabrication with the help of atomic optics can provide a tool for the production of magnetic nanostructures, where femtoseconds laser shots can provide coherent control of magnetization on ultra light picoseconds timescale.


Challenge in Astrophysics


Lecture description:
The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 2008 (GREAT08) Challenge focuses on a problem that is of crucial importance for future observations in cosmology. The shapes of distant galaxies can be used to determine the properties of dark energy and the nature of gravity, because light from those galaxies is bent by gravity from the intervening dark matter. The observed galaxy images appear distorted, although only slightly, and their shapes must be precisely disentangled from the effects of pixelisation, convolution and noise. The worldwide gravitational lensing community has made significant progress in techniques to measure these distortions via the Shear TEsting Program (STEP). Via STEP, we have run challenges within our own community, and come to recognise that this particular image analysis problem is ideally matched to experts in statistical inference, inverse problems and computational learning. Thus, in order to continue the progress seen in recent years, we are seeking an infusion of new ideas from these communities.

Lecture topics:
GRavitational IEnsing Accuracy Testing 2008. Contents of our Universe. Gravitational Lensing. Gravitational Lensing. Galaxy Cluster Abell 2218. Cosmic Lensing. Atmosphere and Telescopes. Pixelisation. Noise. The Forward Process. Example. GREAT08: Data, Results, Timeline and Summary.


Nanowires and Nanocrystals for Nanotechnology


Lecture description:
Nanowires and nanocrystals represent important nanomaterials with one-dimensional and zero-dimensional morphology, respectively. Lecture will give an overview on the research about how these nanomaterials impact the critical applications in faster transistors, smaller nonvolatile memory devices, efficient solar energy conversion, high-energy battery and nanobiotechnology.


Manipulation of Nanoscale Charged States in Manganites


Lecture description:
The complicated interplay among charge, spin and lattice degrees of freedom in manganites is believed to induce the unexpected magnetic and transport phenomena, such as the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). Manganites display also a variety of useful multiferroic properties such as colossal magnetocapacitance effect and high dielectric constant. In multiferroics ferromagnetic order can be controlled by an electric field, or ferroelectric order can be controlled by a magnetic field. Among them, La1-xSrxMnO3 is the most attractive candidate for multiferroic applications because of a combination of desirable properties.
In this work lecturer reports the observation of the high contrast of electric field induced charged polar states after the local application of the electric field to the surface of samples via several Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) techniques in La0.9Sr0.1MnO3 and La0.89Sr0.11MnO3 single crystals. The electric-field-induced contrast is observed in Kelvin mode (KFM) confirming local modification of the surface properties of manganites. Piezoelectric effect of the induced states is assessed using Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM). These results are complemented by the measurements of piezoresponse hysteresis and surface potential hysteresis loops at some area in standard pulse dc mode. The induced polar charged states relax with characteristic time constant of about 80 hours at room temperature, which exceeds Maxwell relaxation time by many orders of magnitude. The mechanisms of the observed phenomena are discussed along with the possible instrumentation effects. The origin of the effect can be related to the nanoscale charge and spin dynamic inhomogeneities appearing in manganites due to a delicate balance of charge, lattice and magnetic order. The injection of the additional charge carriers in the induced area promotes the appearance of the polar charged states. The long relaxation time for the induced charged state may be explained by the existence of the intrinsic inhomogeneous states.
All these results show that the existence of the stable areas with the increased charge concentration is possible and thus it confirms the tendency towards charge segregation in manganites.



American Physics Society (APS) Videos


Videos on topics:
1998 Nobel Prize Winners. 20th Century Development in Instrumentation and Measurements. Applications of Lasers and New Physics. Atomic Clocks in Space. Atomic Nucleus: A 20th Century Journey. Breakthroughs of Women in Physics. Dynamics Since Poincaré. Einstein's Legacy: Probing Nature's Experiments. Electronic Structure and Semiconductors. Energy Landscapes in Physics. Environmental and Medical Applications of Chemical Physics. From Particles to Atoms and Galaxies. History of Chemical Physics. History of Magnetism. History of Physics in National Defense. Impact of Computing on Physics. Impact of Immigration on U.S. Physics. Impact of the Laser on Contemporary New Physics. Industrial Research: Past, Present and Future. International Cooperation in Science. Milestones in Polymer Physics. Natural Standards. Neutrinos. Physics and Technology. Physics in the 20th Century - Quantum Mechanics, High Energy Physics. Physics of the Very Large and the Very Small. Plasmas Physics in the 20th Century. Precision Measurements in Atomic Physics. Quantum Many-Body Phenomena. Rabi: Physicist and Citizen. Research and Innovation in Physics Education. Science Policy for the New Millennium. Science and Accelerators: Storage Rings and Light Sources. Search for the Ultimate Structure of Matter. Spontaneous Pattern Formation in Fluids. Statistical and Multidisciplinary Physics. Three-Body Problem in Atomic, Molecular, and Nuclear. Unsolved Problems in Astrophysics.



Massive Collection of Physics Seminar Videos from Rutgers University Physics Department


Seminar videos date back from 2003 and are on following topics:
String Theory. Supersymmetry. Branes. Gauge Theory. Parallel Worlds. Gravity Waves. Large Hadron Collider. Metastability. Cosmology. Particle Physics and many other topics.



Brookhaven National Library Physics Videos


Contains the following video lectures:
  1. The Pesky Neutrino.
  2. Einstein's Biggest Blunder: A Cosmic Mystery Story.
  3. What is responsible for proton "spin"?
  4. Before the Big Bang.
  5. Celebrating the Physics of Larry Leipuner.
  6. Aerosols, Clouds, and Climate: From Micro to Macro.
  7. Few microseconds after the Big Bang.
  8. Physics and Neuroscience: Common Ground Between Disparate Fields.
  9. The Last 20 Years in Neutrino Science.
  10. Einstein's Clocks, Poincaré's Maps
  11. The Pyramid and the Ring.
  12. Third-generation light source at Brookhaven Lab.
  13. Women in Science.
  14. Science in a Flat World.
  15. Science Advisor to the President.
  16. Molecular Design of a Metal Transporter.
  17. Atomic-Layer Engineering of Cuprate Superconductors.
  18. The Quest for High Luminosity in Hadron Colliders.
  19. The Origin of Mass and the Feebleness of Gravity.
  20. Advanced Neutron Detection Methods: New Tools for Countering Nuclear Terrorism.
  21. Hotter, Denser, Faster, Smaller...and Nearly Perfect.
  22. Optical Stochastic Cooling of Ion Beams.
  23. Photovoltaics and the Environment.
  24. E-RHIC - Future Electron-Ion Collider at BNL.
  25. Nanovision: Nanotubes, Nanowires and Nanoparticles.
  26. A Celebration of Richard Feynman.
  27. Probing the Matter Created at RHIC.
  28. Cultivating Crystallography.



Demonstrations of Electromagnetic Fields, Forces, and Motion



Demonstrations include:
Coulomb's Force Law and Measurements of Charge. Magnetic Field of a Line Current. Voltmeter Reading Induced by Magnetic Induction. Charge Induced in Ground Plane by Overhead Conductor. Capacitance Attenuator. An Artificial Dielectric. Distribution of Unpaired Charge. Rotation of an Insulating Rod in a Steady Current. Relaxation of Charge on Particle in Ohmic Conductor. Van de Graaff and Kelvin Generators. Electrostatic Precipitation. Field of a Circular Cylindrical Solenoid. Field of Square Pair of Coils. Surface Used to Define the Flux Linkage. Field and Inductance of a Spherical Coil. Surface Currents Induced in Ground Plane by Overhead Conductor. Inductive Attenuator. Measurement of B-H Characteristic. Non Uniqueness of Voltage in an MQS System. Edgerton's Boomer. Currents Induced in a Conducting Shell. Skin Effect. Force on a Liquid Dielectric. Steady State Magnetic Levitation. Visualization of Standing Waves.



Physics Demonstrations from Wake Forest University


Demonstrations include:
Simple motion. Acceleration. Force and Torque. Newton's First Law. Mass and Center of Mass. Different Forces, Different Motions. Newton's Third Law. Linear Momentum. Conservation of Energy. Collisions. Rotation and Angular Momentum. Pressure. Density. Fluid Pressure. Archimedes' Principle. Pascal's Principle. Bernoulli's Principle. Temperature. Thermal Expansion. First Law of Thermodynamics. Heat Transfer. Phase Transitions. Second Law of Thermodynamics. Waves. Wave Propagation. Sound. Production of Sound. Propagation of Sound. Perception of Sound. Electric Charge. Electric Force and Coulomb's Law. Electric Current. Electric Circuits and Ohm's Law. Power and Energy in Electric Circuits. AC and DC. Magnetism. Interactions Between Electricity and Magnetism. Principles of Electromagnetism. Light Waves. Mirrors: Plane, Concave, Convex. Refraction and Reflection. Lenses and Images. Dispersion and Color. Atomic Spectra.



Synchrotron Radiation for Materials Science Applications


Lectures from UC Berkeley, course EE 290F.

Course topics:
Introduction to Synchrotron Radiation. X-Ray Interaction with Matter: Absorption, Scattering, Refraction. Probing Matter: Diffraction, Spectroscopy and Photoemission. Radiation by an Accelerated Charge: Scattering by Free and Bound Electrons. Multi-Electron Atom, Atomic Scattering Factors: Wave Propagation and Refractive Index. Refraction and Reflection, Total Internal Reflection, Brewster's Angle, Kramers-Kronig. Multilayer Interference Coatings, Scattering, Diffraction, Reflectivity and Applications. Introduction to Synchrotron Radiation, Bending Magnet Radiation. Bending Magnet Critical Photon Energy, Undulator Central Radiation Cone. Undulator Equation and Radiated Power. Spectral Brightness of Undulator Radiation, Harmonics, Wiggler Radiation. Spatial and Temporal Coherence; Coherent Undulator Radiation. Applications of Coherent Undulator Radiation. Visit to the Advanced Light Source, Berkeley (ALS). Advanced Spectroscopy for Atomic and Molecular Physics. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy - XAFS, NEXAFS, XANES, EXAFS. X-Ray Diffraction for Materials Analysis. Photoemission and Photoemission Spectroscopy. Angle Resolved Photoemission and Nano-ARPES. Photo-Emission Electron Microscopy (PEEM). X-Rays and Magnetism. XMCD - Out-of-Plane Bending Magnetic Radiation. Zone Plate Microscopy and Applications. Nanoscale Magnetic Imaging. Biological X-Ray Microscopy. X-Ray Microtomography. Coherent Soft X-Ray Scattering for Studying Nanoscale Materials. Student Presentations.


Geometric Optics (VisSci 203A, UC Berkeley)


This course is audio only. Somewhat silly from UC Berkeley, a course on optics in an audio format...

Course topics:
Rays, Wavefronts, and Vergence. Optical Objects and Images. Ray Diagrams. Thin lens equations. Astigmatism. Thin Lens Eye Models. Refracting Interfaces. Reduced Systems. Lenses. Principal Plane. Prism. Mirrors.


Modern Physics (PHYS 2D, University of California, San Diego)


Course description:
This course deals with some of the most important and exciting physics of the 20th century, including special relativity, quantum physics and its many applications to atomic and particle physics. The phenomena involved are abstract and outside the usual range of everyday experience, but have a profound effect on modern technology and our understanding of the origin and evolution of the universe. Intuition and common world experience will NOT be reliable guides in this course; it will require your full attention to reading assignments, lectures and problem assignments.


Short Course in Quantum Information (by Ivan H. Deutsch)


Course topics:
Introduction to Quantum Information. Formal Structure of Quantum Mechanics. Entanglement. Qubits and Quantum Circuits. Quantum Algorithms. Decoherence, Errors, and Error Correction. Physical Implementations.



Introduction to String Theory


Course description:
Course presents a simple and non-technical overview of string theory, aimed for non-experts who like to get some idea what string theory is about. Besides introductory material, the lecturer intends to cover also some of the more recent developments.



String Theory


Course description:
The primary emphasis of the lectures will be the study of non-perturbative regimes of string theory. The first lecture will be broad and at a general level, touching on a number of topics. The remaining lectures will be more detailed, exhibiting some key tools and phenomena which have formed the foundation for several recent advances in the field. Among these are D-branes, which will be studied from several points of view, leading to ideas such as strong/weak coupling dualities, open/closed dualities, holography, and gauge/gravity dualities. If time permits, the last lecture will discuss "minimal string theories", which are simple but powerful exactly solvable systems which exhibit a range of key non-perturbative phenomena.


String Theory for Pedestrians


Course description:
In this 3-lecture series the lecturer will discuss the basics of string theory, some physical applications, and the outlook for the future. He will begin with the main concepts of the classical theory and the application to the study of cosmic superstrings. Then he'll will turn to the quantum theory and discuss applications to the investigation of hadronic spectra and the recently discovered quark-gluon plasma. Finally, he will conclude with a sketch of string models of particle physics and showing some avenues that may lead to a complete formulation of string theory.



Guide for Physics Teachers: Particle Physics


Videos on topics:
Particle Physics Introduction. Accelerators. Detectors. The Standard Model and Fundamental Particles.



Bonus videos, somewhat physics related:

The Universe is Queerer Than We Can Suppose


Description:
Biologist Richard Dawkins makes a case for "thinking the improbable" by looking at how the human frame of reference limits our understanding of the universe.



Journey to the Center of the Earth ... and beyond!


Description:
Bill Stone, a maverick cave explorer who has plumbed Earth’s deepest abysses, discusses his efforts to mine lunar ice for space fuel and to build an autonomous robot for studying Jupiter's moon Europa.



Have fun getting smarter with these lectures! Until next time!


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